Phosphatase Activity Controls the Ups and Downs of Cerebellar Learning.
Neuron. 2010 Aug 26;67(4):525-526
Authors: Carey MR, Regehr WG
Investigations of the cellular substrate for cerebellar learning … . . . → Read More: Phosphatase Activity Controls the Ups and Downs of Cerebellar Learning.
Is Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis a Mitochondrial Channelopathy?
Neuron. 2010 Aug 26;67(4):523-524
Authors: Le Verche V, Przedborski S
SOD1 is a cause of the fatal, paralytic disorder ALS. Although mec… . . . → Read More: Is Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis a Mitochondrial Channelopathy?
Targeting Single Neuronal Networks for Gene Expression and Cell Labeling In Vivo.
Neuron. 2010 Aug 26;67(4):562-574
Authors: Marshel JH, Mori T, Nielsen KJ, Callaway EM
To understand fine-scale struct… . . . → Read More: Targeting Single Neuronal Networks for Gene Expression and Cell Labeling In Vivo.
Avoiding DEET through Insect Gustatory Receptors.
Neuron. 2010 Aug 26;67(4):555-561
Authors: Lee Y, Kim SH, Montell C
DEET is the most widely used insect repellent worldwide. In Drosophila olfactory r… . . . → Read More: Avoiding DEET through Insect Gustatory Receptors.
Neuroeconomic Approaches to Mental Disorders.
Neuron. 2010 Aug 26;67(4):543-554
Authors: Kishida KT, King-Casas B, Montague PR
The pervasiveness of decision-making in every area of human endeavor high… . . . → Read More: Neuroeconomic Approaches to Mental Disorders.
Neural Map Formation in the Mouse Olfactory System.
Neuron. 2010 Aug 26;67(4):530-542
Authors: Sakano H
Odor signals received by odorant receptors (ORs) in the olfactory epithelium are represented as … . . . → Read More: Neural Map Formation in the Mouse Olfactory System.
Petrified or Aroused with Fear: The Central Amygdala Takes the Lead.
Neuron. 2010 Aug 26;67(4):527-529
Authors: Pape HC
The behavioral expression of fear ranges from active, cognitive responses to pas… . . . → Read More: Petrified or Aroused with Fear: The Central Amygdala Takes the Lead.
Spatial Hearing in Echoic Environments: The Role of the Envelope in Owls.
Neuron. 2010 Aug 26;67(4):643-655
Authors: Nelson BS, Takahashi TT
In the precedence effect, sounds emanating directly from th… . . . → Read More: Spatial Hearing in Echoic Environments: The Role of the Envelope in Owls.
Spatiotemporal Response Properties of Optic-Flow Processing Neurons.
Neuron. 2010 Aug 26;67(4):629-642
Authors: Weber F, Machens CK, Borst A
A central goal in sensory neuroscience is to fully characte… . . . → Read More: Spatiotemporal Response Properties of Optic-Flow Processing Neurons.
Purkinje Cell-Specific Knockout of the Protein Phosphatase PP2B Impairs Potentiation and Cerebellar Motor Learning.
Neuron. 2010 Aug 26;67(4):618-628
Authors: Schonewille M, Belmeguenai A, Koekkoek SK, Houtma… . . . → Read More: Purkinje Cell-Specific Knockout of the Protein Phosphatase PP2B Impairs Potentiation and Cerebellar Motor Learning.
Myosin IIb Regulates Actin Dynamics during Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Formation.
Neuron. 2010 Aug 26;67(4):603-617
Authors: Rex CS, Gavin CF, Rubio MD, Kramar EA, Chen LY, Jia Y, Huganir RL, Muzyczka N, G… . . . → Read More: Myosin IIb Regulates Actin Dynamics during Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Formation.
Rab GTPases-Dependent Endocytic Pathways Regulate Neuronal Migration and Maturation through N-Cadherin Trafficking.
Neuron. 2010 Aug 26;67(4):588-602
Authors: Kawauchi T, Sekine K, Shikanai M, Chihama K, Tomi… . . . → Read More: Rab GTPases-Dependent Endocytic Pathways Regulate Neuronal Migration and Maturation through N-Cadherin Trafficking.
Misfolded Mutant SOD1 Directly Inhibits VDAC1 Conductance in a Mouse Model of Inherited ALS.
Neuron. 2010 Aug 26;67(4):575-587
Authors: Israelson A, Arbel N, Da Cruz S, Ilieva H, Yamanaka K, Shoshan-Barmatz V… . . . → Read More: Misfolded Mutant SOD1 Directly Inhibits VDAC1 Conductance in a Mouse Model of Inherited ALS.
Moral Judgments Recruit Domain-General Valuation Mechanisms to Integrate Representations of Probability and Magnitude.
Neuron. 2010 Aug 26;67(4):667-677
Authors: Shenhav A, Greene JD
Many important mo… . . . → Read More: Moral Judgments Recruit Domain-General Valuation Mechanisms to Integrate Representations of Probability and Magnitude.
A Neural Switch for Active and Passive Fear.
Neuron. 2010 Aug 26;67(4):656-666
Authors: Gozzi A, Jain A, Giovanelli A, Bertollini C, Crestan V, Schwarz AJ, Tsetsenis T, Ragozzino D, Gross CT, Bifone A
… . . . → Read More: A Neural Switch for Active and Passive Fear.
Enhanced functions of electrical junctions.
Neuron. 2010 Aug 12;67(3):354-6
Authors: Connors BW, Zolnik TA, Lee SC
Electrical synapses and synchrony are nearly synonymous. In this issue of Neuron, Vervaeke et al. br… . . . → Read More: Enhanced functions of electrical junctions.
Signaling endosomes trigger synapse assembly.
Neuron. 2010 Aug 12;67(3):352-4
Authors: Newbern JM, Li X, Snider WD
In this issue of Neuron, Sharma et al. report that target-derived NGF exerts long-distance control o… . . . → Read More: Signaling endosomes trigger synapse assembly.
The force be with you: a mechanoreceptor channel in proprioception and touch.
Neuron. 2010 Aug 12;67(3):349-51
Authors: Wilson RI, Corey DP
The TRPN1 ion channel has a role in both hearing and bristle mechanosensati… . . . → Read More: The force be with you: a mechanoreceptor channel in proprioception and touch.
C. elegans TRP family protein TRP-4 is a pore-forming subunit of a native mechanotransduction channel.
Neuron. 2010 Aug 12;67(3):381-91
Authors: Kang L, Gao J, Schafer WR, Xie Z, Xu XZ
Mechanotransdu… . . . → Read More: C. elegans TRP family protein TRP-4 is a pore-forming subunit of a native mechanotransduction channel.
The role of the TRP channel NompC in Drosophila larval and adult locomotion.
Neuron. 2010 Aug 12;67(3):373-80
Authors: Cheng LE, Song W, Looger LL, Jan LY, Jan YN
The generation of coordinated body m… . . . → Read More: The role of the TRP channel NompC in Drosophila larval and adult locomotion.
Searching for engrams.
Neuron. 2010 Aug 12;67(3):363-71
Authors: HÃ¼bener M, Bonhoeffer T
Recent advances in cellular imaging technologies together with novel genetic tools have enabled the observa… . . . → Read More: Searching for engrams.
A custody battle for the mind: evidence for extensive imprinting in the brain.
Neuron. 2010 Aug 12;67(3):359-62
Authors: Tollkuhn J, Xu X, Shah NM
Relatively few genes (approximately 100) have previo… . . . → Read More: A custody battle for the mind: evidence for extensive imprinting in the brain.
Forward and back: motifs of inhibition in olfactory processing.
Neuron. 2010 Aug 12;67(3):357-8
Authors: Bazhenov M, Stopfer M
The remarkable performance of the olfactory system in classifying and categorizing the c… . . . → Read More: Forward and back: motifs of inhibition in olfactory processing.
Long-distance control of synapse assembly by target-derived NGF.
Neuron. 2010 Aug 12;67(3):422-34
Authors: Sharma N, Deppmann CD, Harrington AW, St Hillaire C, Chen ZY, Lee FS, Ginty DD
We report a r… . . . → Read More: Long-distance control of synapse assembly by target-derived NGF.
Neural RNA-binding protein Musashi1 controls midline crossing of precerebellar neurons through posttranscriptional regulation of Robo3/Rig-1 expression.
Neuron. 2010 Aug 12;67(3):407-21
Authors: Kuwako K, Ka… . . . → Read More: Neural RNA-binding protein Musashi1 controls midline crossing of precerebellar neurons through posttranscriptional regulation of Robo3/Rig-1 expression.
Huntingtin is required for mitotic spindle orientation and mammalian neurogenesis.
Neuron. 2010 Aug 12;67(3):392-406
Authors: Godin JD, Colombo K, Molina-Calavita M, Keryer G, Zala D, Charrin BC, Dietrich P,… . . . → Read More: Huntingtin is required for mitotic spindle orientation and mammalian neurogenesis.
Multiple timescales of memory in lateral habenula and dopamine neurons.
Neuron. 2010 Aug 12;67(3):499-510
Authors: Bromberg-Martin ES, Matsumoto M, Nakahara H, Hikosaka O
Midbrain dopamine neurons ar… . . . → Read More: Multiple timescales of memory in lateral habenula and dopamine neurons.
A conserved switch in sensory processing prepares developing neocortex for vision.
Neuron. 2010 Aug 12;67(3):480-98
Authors: Colonnese MT, Kaminska A, Minlebaev M, Milh M, Bloem B, Lescure S, Moriette G, Chi… . . . → Read More: A conserved switch in sensory processing prepares developing neocortex for vision.
Selective activation of striatal fast-spiking interneurons during choice execution.
Neuron. 2010 Aug 12;67(3):466-79
Authors: Gage GJ, Stoetzner CR, Wiltschko AB, Berke JD
Basal ganglia circuits are … . . . → Read More: Selective activation of striatal fast-spiking interneurons during choice execution.
From dendrite to soma: dynamic routing of inhibition by complementary interneuron microcircuits in olfactory cortex.
Neuron. 2010 Aug 12;67(3):452-65
Authors: Stokes CC, Isaacson JS
Diverse inhibitor… . . . → Read More: From dendrite to soma: dynamic routing of inhibition by complementary interneuron microcircuits in olfactory cortex.
Rapid desynchronization of an electrically coupled interneuron network with sparse excitatory synaptic input.
Neuron. 2010 Aug 12;67(3):435-51
Authors: Vervaeke K, Lorincz A, Gleeson P, Farinella M, Nusser Z… . . . → Read More: Rapid desynchronization of an electrically coupled interneuron network with sparse excitatory synaptic input.
When giving is good: ventromedial prefrontal cortex activation for others’ intentions.
Neuron. 2010 Aug 12;67(3):511-21
Authors: Cooper JC, Kreps TA, Wiebe T, Pirkl T, Knutson B
In social decision-ma… . . . → Read More: When giving is good: ventromedial prefrontal cortex activation for others’ intentions.
Jérôme Di Giovanni, Sami Boudkkazi, Sumiko Mochida, Andrzej Bialowas, Nada Samari, Christian Lévêque, Fahamoe Youssouf, Aline Brechet, Cécile Iborra, Yves Maulet, Nicole Moutot, Dominique Debanne, Michael Seagar, Oussama El Far. Acidification of s… . . . → Read More: V-ATPase Membrane Sector Associates with Synaptobrevin to Modulate Neurotransmitter Release
Michael B. Manookin, Michael Weick, Benjamin K. Stafford, Jonathan B. Demb. In the retina, it is not well understood how visual processing depends on AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors. Here we investigated how these receptors contribute to contra… . . . → Read More: NMDA Receptor Contributions to Visual Contrast Coding
Luis Lemus, Adrián Hernández, Rogelio Luna, Antonio Zainos, Ranulfo Romo. Recent studies have reported that sensory cortices process more than one sensory modality, challenging the long-lasting concept that they process only one. However, both the id… . . . → Read More: Do Sensory Cortices Process More than One Sensory Modality during Perceptual Judgments?
Thomas Akam, Dimitri M. Kullmann. The mammalian brain exhibits profuse interregional connectivity. How information flow is rapidly and flexibly switched among connected areas remains poorly understood. Task-dependent changes in th…. . . . → Read More: Oscillations and Filtering Networks Support Flexible Routing of Information
Tal Laviv, Inbal Riven, Iftach Dolev, Irena Vertkin, Bartosz Balana, Paul A. Slesinger, Inna Slutsky. Presynaptic GABAB receptor (GABABR) heterodimers are composed of GB1a/GB2 subunits and critically influence synaptic and cognitive functions. Here, we… . . . → Read More: Basal GABA Regulates GABABR Conformation and Release Probability at Single Hippocampal Synapses
Michaël Demarque, Nicholas C. Spitzer. Genetic programs, environmental factors, and electrical activity interact to drive the maturation of the brain. Although the cascade of transcription factors that leads to specification of the ser…. . . . → Read More: Activity-Dependent Expression of Lmx1b Regulates Specification of Serotonergic Neurons Modulating Swimming Behavior
Jun B. Ding, Jaime N. Guzman, Jayms D. Peterson, Joshua A. Goldberg, D. James Surmeier. Salient stimuli redirect attention and suppress ongoing motor activity. This attentional shift is thought to rely upon thalamic signals to the striatum to shift cor… . . . → Read More: Thalamic Gating of Corticostriatal Signaling by Cholinergic Interneurons
John P. Miller, Jennifer Holcomb, Ismael Al-Ramahi, Maria de Haro, Juliette Gafni, Ningzhe Zhang, Eugene Kim, Mario Sanhueza, Cameron Torcassi, Seung Kwak, Juan Botas, Robert E. Hughes, Lisa M. Ellerby. Proteolytic cleavage of huntingtin (Htt) is known… . . . → Read More: Matrix Metalloproteinases Are Modifiers of Huntingtin Proteolysis and Toxicity in Huntington’s Disease
Patricio Opazo, Simon Labrecque, Cezar M. Tigaret, Arnaud Frouin, Paul W. Wiseman, Paul De Koninck, Daniel Choquet. The Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is critically required for the synaptic recruitment of AMPA-type glutamate rece… . . . → Read More: CaMKII Triggers the Diffusional Trapping of Surface AMPARs through Phosphorylation of Stargazin
Michael A. Moskowitz, Eng H. Lo, Costantino Iadecola. This review focuses on mechanisms and emerging concepts that drive the science of stroke in a therapeutic direction. Once considered exclusively a disorder of blood vessels, growing evidence has l…. . . . → Read More: The Science of Stroke: Mechanisms in Search of Treatments
Tae-Yeon Eom, Jingjun Li, E.S. Anton. Newly generated neuroblasts from the subventricular zone of the adult brain migrate as neuronal chains within a network of astroglial tubes in the rostral migratory stream. This highly directed, r…. . . . → Read More: Going Tubular in the Rostral Migratory Stream: Neurons Remodel Astrocyte Tubes to Promote Directional Migration in the Adult Brain
Christoph Kayser. Multisensory integration is central to perception, and recent work drafts it as a distributed process involving many and even primary sensory cortices. Studies in behaving animals performing a mul…. . . . → Read More: The Multisensory Nature of Unisensory Cortices: A Puzzle Continued
Catherine A. Thorn, Ann M. Graybiel. How the cholinergic and dopaminergic systems of the striatum interact and how these interface with the massive neocortical input to the striatum are classic questions of cardinal interest to neuro…. . . . → Read More: Pausing to Regroup: Thalamic Gating of Cortico-Basal Ganglia Networks
Naoko Kaneko, Oscar Marín, Masato Koike, Yuki Hirota, Yasuo Uchiyama, Jane Y. Wu, Qiang Lu, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Arturo Alvarez-Buylla, Hideyuki Okano, John L.R. Rubenstein, Kazunobu Sawamoto. In the long-range neuronal migration of adult mammals, yo… . . . → Read More: New Neurons Clear the Path of Astrocytic Processes for Their Rapid Migration in the Adult Brain
Byung-Chang Suh, Karina Leal, Bertil Hille. Modulation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels controls activities of excitable cells. We show that high-voltage activated Ca2+ channels are regulated by membrane phosphatidylinos…. . . . → Read More: Modulation of High-Voltage Activated Ca2+ Channels by Membrane Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate
Ashu Johri, M. Flint Beal. Mutant huntingtin proteolysis mediated by various proteases plays a key role in Huntington’s disease (HD) pathogenesis. In this issue of Neuron, Miller et al. have identified 11 proteases, …. . . . → Read More: Hunting-ton for New Proteases: MMPs as the New Target?
Ethan S. Bromberg-Martin, Masayuki Matsumoto, Okihide Hikosaka. Dopamine has a crucial role in anticipation of motivational events. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of this process, we analyzed the activity of dopamine neurons and one of their … . . . → Read More: Distinct Tonic and Phasic Anticipatory Activity in Lateral Habenula and Dopamine Neurons
Flavio Fröhlich, David A. McCormick. Local field potentials and the underlying endogenous electric fields (EFs) are traditionally considered to be epiphenomena of structured neuronal network activity. Recently, however, externally ap…. . . . → Read More: Endogenous Electric Fields May Guide Neocortical Network Activity
Steven M. Nelson, Alexander L. Cohen, Jonathan D. Power, Gagan S. Wig, Francis M. Miezin, Mark E. Wheeler, Katerina Velanova, David I. Donaldson, Jeffrey S. Phillips, Bradley L. Schlaggar, Steven E. Petersen. The parietal lobe has long been viewed as a… . . . → Read More: A Parcellation Scheme for Human Left Lateral Parietal Cortex
Yi-Mei Yang, Michael J. Fedchyshyn, Giovanbattista Grande, Jamila Aitoubah, Christopher W. Tsang, Hong Xie, Cameron A. Ackerley, William S. Trimble, Lu-Yang Wang. Neurotransmitter release depends critically on close spatial coupling of Ca2+ entry to sy… . . . → Read More: Septins Regulate Developmental Switching from Microdomain to Nanodomain Coupling of Ca2+ Influx to Neurotransmitter Release at a Central Synapse
Nicholas A. Frost, Hari Shroff, Huihui Kong, Eric Betzig, Thomas A. Blanpied. Within dendritic spines, actin is presumed to anchor receptors in the postsynaptic density and play numerous roles regulating synaptic transmission. However, the submicron di… . . . → Read More: Single-Molecule Discrimination of Discrete Perisynaptic and Distributed Sites of Actin Filament Assembly within Dendritic Spines
Gaga Kochlamazashvili, Christian Henneberger, Olena Bukalo, Elena Dvoretskova, Oleg Senkov, Patricia M.-J. Lievens, Ruth Westenbroek, Andreas K. Engel, William A. Catterall, Dmitri A. Rusakov, Melitta Schachner, Alexander Dityatev. Although the extrace… . . . → Read More: The Extracellular Matrix Molecule Hyaluronic Acid Regulates Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity by Modulating Postsynaptic L-Type Ca2+ Channels
Jesko Koehnke, Phinikoula S. Katsamba, Goran Ahlsen, Fabiana Bahna, Jeremie Vendome, Barry Honig, Lawrence Shapiro, Xiangshu Jin. Alternatively spliced ?-neurexins (?-NRXs) and neuroligins (NLs) are thought to have distinct extracellular binding affi… . . . → Read More: Splice Form Dependence of ?-Neurexin/Neuroligin Binding Interactions
M. Scott Bowers, Billy T. Chen, Antonello Bonci. Experience-dependent plasticity at excitatory synapses of the mesocorticolimbic system is a fundamental brain mechanism that enables adaptation to an ever-changing environment. These synaptic resp…. . . . → Read More: AMPA Receptor Synaptic Plasticity Induced by Psychostimulants: The Past, Present, and Therapeutic Future
Matthijs A.A. van der Meer, Adam Johnson, Neil C. Schmitzer-Torbert, A. David Redish. Decision-making studies across different domains suggest that decisions can arise from multiple, parallel systems in the brain: a flexible system utilizing action-out… . . . → Read More: Triple Dissociation of Information Processing in Dorsal Striatum, Ventral Striatum, and Hippocampus on a Learned Spatial Decision Task
Jana Kusch, Christoph Biskup, Susanne Thon, Eckhard Schulz, Vasilica Nache, Thomas Zimmer, Frank Schwede, Klaus Benndorf. HCN pacemaker channels are tetramers mediating rhythmicity in neuronal and cardiac cells. The activity of these channels is contro… . . . → Read More: Interdependence of Receptor Activation and Ligand Binding in HCN2 Pacemaker Channels
Edward O. Mann, Ole Paulsen. Synchronized network activity can be recorded as fluctuations in the local field potential (LFP). In this issue of Neuron, Fröhlich and McCormick suggest that cortical LFPs themselves contr…. . . . → Read More: Local Field Potential Oscillations as a Cortical Soliloquy
L.N. van de Lagemaat, Seth G.N. Grant. A large international consortium reports in Nature on the diversity of genomic changes in families with autism spectrum disorders. Inherited and de novo mutations affecting many genes were …. . . . → Read More: Genome Variation and Complexity in the Autism Spectrum
Melina R. Uncapher, J. Benjamin Hutchinson, Anthony D. Wagner. In this issue of Neuron, Nelson and colleagues report a novel parcellation of human lateral parietal cortex based on task-induced response profiles and resting-state functional connectivity… . . . → Read More: A Roadmap to Brain Mapping: Toward a Functional Map of Human Parietal Cortex
Karun K. Singh, Xuecai Ge, Yingwei Mao, Laurel Drane, Konstantinos Meletis, Benjamin A. Samuels, Li-Huei Tsai. The psychiatric illness risk gene Disrupted in Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) plays an important role in brain development; however, it is unclear h… . . . → Read More: Dixdc1 Is a Critical Regulator of DISC1 and Embryonic Cortical Development
Jennifer L. Ecker, Olivia N. Dumitrescu, Kwoon Y. Wong, Nazia M. Alam, Shih-Kuo Chen, Tara LeGates, Jordan M. Renna, Glen T. Prusky, David M. Berson, Samer Hattar. Using the photopigment melanopsin, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (… . . . → Read More: Melanopsin-Expressing Retinal Ganglion-Cell Photoreceptors: Cellular Diversity and Role in Pattern Vision
Zhiyi Wei, Mingjie Zhang. The alternative splicing of neurexins (NRXs) and neuroligins (NLs) has been implicated in specifying synaptic connections. In this issue of Neuron, Koehnke et al. took a structural approach…. . . . → Read More: A Structural Approach to Decipher the Neurexin and Neuroligin Splice Isoform Code
Lisa Chakrabarti, Rabaab Zahra, Stephen M. Jackson, Parsa Kazemi-Esfarjani, Bryce L. Sopher, Amanda G. Mason, Thomas Toneff, Soyoung Ryu, Scott Shaffer, Janice W. Kansy, Jeremiah Eng, Gennifer Merrihew, Michael J. MacCoss, Anne Murphy, David R. Goodlet… . . . → Read More: Mitochondrial Dysfunction in NnaD Mutant Flies and Purkinje Cell Degeneration Mice Reveals a Role for Nna Proteins in Neuronal Bioenergetics
Josef P. Rauschecker, Amber M. Leaver, Mark Mühlau. Tinnitus, the most common auditory disorder, affects about 40 million people in the United States alone, and its incidence is rising due to an aging population and increasing noise exposure. Altho…. . . . → Read More: Tuning Out the Noise: Limbic-Auditory Interactions in Tinnitus
Tae-Ju Park, Tom Curran. Disabled-1 is a key signaling molecule in the Reelin pathway that plays a critical role in neuronal migration and positioning during brain development. In this issue of Neuron, Yano et al. …. . . . → Read More: Alternative Splicing Disabled by Nova2
Jack Kronengold, Leonard K. Kaczmarek. BK potassium channels regulate spike width and firing rate. A BK point mutation in humans enhances channel activity, leading to epilepsy. In this issue of Neuron, Yang and colleagues use th…. . . . → Read More: A Less Flexible BK Channel Opens More Easily
Verónica Campanucci, Arjun Krishnaswamy, Ellis Cooper. Most people with diabetes develop severe complications of the autonomic nervous system; yet, the underlying causes of many diabetic-induced dysautonomias are poorly understood. Here we explore the… . . . → Read More: Diabetes Depresses Synaptic Transmission in Sympathetic Ganglia by Inactivating nAChRs through a Conserved Intracellular Cysteine Residue
Masato Yano, Yoshika Hayakawa-Yano, Aldo Mele, Robert B. Darnell. Neuronal migration leads to a highly organized laminar structure in the mammalian brain, and its misregulation causes lissencephaly and behavioral and cognitive defects. Reelin signaling… . . . → Read More: Nova2 Regulates Neuronal Migration through an RNA Switch in Disabled-1 Signaling
Qun-Fang Wan, Zhen-Yu Zhou, Pratima Thakur, Alejandro Vila, David M. Sherry, Roger Janz, Ruth Heidelberger. Synaptic vesicle 2 (SV2) proteins, critical for proper nervous system function, are implicated in human epilepsy, yet little is known about thei… . . . → Read More: SV2 Acts via Presynaptic Calcium to Regulate Neurotransmitter Release
Ming-Chia Lee, Ryohei Yasuda, Michael D. Ehlers. Optimal function of neuronal networks requires interplay between rapid forms of Hebbian plasticity and homeostatic mechanisms that adjust the threshold for plasticity, termed metaplasticity. Numer…. . . . → Read More: Metaplasticity at Single Glutamatergic Synapses
Junqiu Yang, Gayathri Krishnamoorthy, Akansha Saxena, Guohui Zhang, Jingyi Shi, Huanghe Yang, Kelli Delaloye, David Sept, Jianmin Cui. Ca2+-activated BK channels modulate neuronal activities, including spike frequency adaptation and synaptic transmissi… . . . → Read More: An Epilepsy/Dyskinesia-Associated Mutation Enhances BK Channel Activation by Potentiating Ca2+ Sensing
Takatoshi Hikida, Kensuke Kimura, Norio Wada, Kazuo Funabiki, Shigetada Nakanishi. In the basal ganglia, convergent input and dopaminergic modulation of the direct striatonigral and the indirect striatopallidal pathways are critical in rewarding and a… . . . → Read More: Distinct Roles of Synaptic Transmission in Direct and Indirect Striatal Pathways to Reward and Aversive Behavior
Agnieszka Krzy?osiak, Monika Szyszka-Niagolov, Marta Wietrzych, Serge Gobaille, Shin-ichi Muramatsu, Wojciech Kr??el. Abnormal signaling by retinoids or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has been implicated in clinical depression. The converging point… . . . → Read More: Retinoid X Receptor Gamma Control of Affective Behaviors Involves Dopaminergic Signaling in Mice
Karim Benchenane, Adrien Peyrache, Mehdi Khamassi, Patrick L. Tierney, Yves Gioanni, Francesco P. Battaglia, Sidney I. Wiener. To study the interplay between hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (Pfc) and its importance for learning and memory cons… . . . → Read More: Coherent Theta Oscillations and Reorganization of Spike Timing in the Hippocampal- Prefrontal Network upon Learning
Johannes C. Dahmen, Peter Keating, Fernando R. Nodal, Andreas L. Schulz, Andrew J. King. Sensory systems are known to adapt their coding strategies to the statistics of their environment, but little is still known about the perceptual implications of s… . . . → Read More: Adaptation to Stimulus Statistics in the Perception and Neural Representation of Auditory Space
Uri Nili, Hagar Goldberg, Abraham Weizman, Yadin Dudai. How does the brain encode courage in a real-life fearful situation that demands an immediate response? In this study, volunteers who fear snakes had to bring a live snake into close proximity with… . . . → Read More: Fear Thou Not: Activity of Frontal and Temporal Circuits in Moments of Real-Life Courage
Jason A. Cromer, Jefferson E. Roy, Earl K. Miller
Neural correlates of visual categories have been previously identified in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, whether individual neurons can represent multiple categories is unknown. Varying degrees of generalization versus specialization of neurons in the PFC have been theorized. We recorded from lateral PFC neural . . . → Read More: Representation of Multiple, Independent Categories in the Primate Prefrontal Cortex
Catherine A. Thorn, Hisham Atallah, Mark Howe, Ann M. Graybiel
The basal ganglia are implicated in a remarkable range of functions influencing emotion and cognition as well as motor behavior. Current models of basal ganglia function hypothesize that parallel limbic, associative, and motor cortico-basal ganglia loops contribute to this diverse set of functions, . . . → Read More: Differential Dynamics of Activity Changes in Dorsolateral and Dorsomedial Striatal Loops during Learning
Ralf Scholz, Sven Berberich, Louisa Rathgeber, Alexander Kolleker, Georg Köhr, Hans-Christian Kornau
Central nervous system synapses undergo activity-dependent alterations to support learning and memory. Long-term depression (LTD) reflects a sustained reduction of the synaptic AMPA receptor content based on targeted clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Here we report a current-independent form of AMPA receptor signaling, . . . → Read More: AMPA Receptor Signaling through BRAG2 and Arf6 Critical for Long-Term Synaptic Depression
Akio Sumioka, Dan Yan, Susumu Tomita
Neurons use neurotransmitters to communicate across synapses, constructing neural circuits in the brain. AMPA-type glutamate receptors are the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors mediating fast synaptic transmission. AMPA receptors localize at synapses by forming protein complexes with transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) and PSD-95-like membrane-associated guanylate . . . → Read More: TARP Phosphorylation Regulates Synaptic AMPA Receptors through Lipid Bilayers
Marianne Renner, Pascale N. Lacor, Pauline T. Velasco, Jian Xu, Anis Contractor, William L. Klein, Antoine Triller
Soluble oligomers of amyloid ? (A?) play a role in the memory impairment characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease. Acting as pathogenic ligands, A? oligomers bind to particular synapses and perturb their function, morphology, and maintenance. Events that . . . → Read More: Deleterious Effects of Amyloid ? Oligomers Acting as an Extracellular Scaffold for mGluR5
Daniel Banovic, Omid Khorramshahi, David Owald, Carolin Wichmann, Tamara Riedt, Wernher Fouquet, Rui Tian, Stephan J. Sigrist, Hermann Aberle
Precise apposition of presynaptic and postsynaptic domains is a fundamental property of all neuronal circuits. Experiments in vitro suggest that Neuroligins and Neurexins function as key regulatory proteins in this process. In a genetic screen, . . . → Read More: Drosophila Neuroligin 1 Promotes Growth and Postsynaptic Differentiation at Glutamatergic Neuromuscular Junctions
Matthew P. Klassen, Ye E. Wu, Celine I. Maeder, Isei Nakae, Juan G. Cueva, Emily K. Lehrman, Minoru Tada, Keiko Gengyo-Ando, George J. Wang, Miriam Goodman, Shohei Mitani, Kenji Kontani, Toshiaki Katada, Kang Shen
Presynaptic assembly requires the packaging of requisite proteins into vesicular cargoes in the cell soma, their long-distance microtubule-dependent . . . → Read More: An Arf-like Small G Protein, ARL-8, Promotes the Axonal Transport of Presynaptic Cargoes by Suppressing Vesicle Aggregation
Marta Cortes-Canteli, Justin Paul, Erin H. Norris, Robert Bronstein, Hyung Jin Ahn, Daria Zamolodchikov, Shivaprasad Bhuvanendran, Katherine M. Fenz, Sidney Strickland
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder in which vascular pathology plays an important role. Since the ?-amyloid peptide (A?) is a critical factor in this disease, we examined its relationship . . . → Read More: Fibrinogen and ?-Amyloid Association Alters Thrombosis and Fibrinolysis: A Possible Contributing Factor to Alzheimer’s Disease
Yusuf Tufail, Alexei Matyushov, Nathan Baldwin, Monica L. Tauchmann, Joseph Georges, Anna Yoshihiro, Stephen I. Helms Tillery, William J. Tyler
Electromagnetic-based methods of stimulating brain activity require invasive procedures or have other limitations. Deep-brain stimulation requires surgically implanted electrodes. Transcranial magnetic stimulation does not require surgery, but suffers from low spatial . . . → Read More: Transcranial Pulsed Ultrasound Stimulates Intact Brain Circuits
Barbara Kremeyer, Francisco Lopera, James J. Cox, Aliakmal Momin, Francois Rugiero, Steve Marsh, C. Geoffrey Woods, Nicholas G. Jones, Kathryn J. Paterson, Florence R. Fricker, Andrés Villegas, Natalia Acosta, Nicolás G. Pineda-Trujillo, Juan Diego Ramírez, Julián Zea, Mari-Wyn Burley, Gabriel Bedoya, David L.H. Bennett, John N. Wood, Andrés Ruiz-Linares
Human monogenic pain . . . → Read More: A Gain-of-Function Mutation in TRPA1 Causes Familial Episodic Pain Syndrome
Jae K. Lee, Cédric G. Geoffroy, Andrea F. Chan, Kristine E. Tolentino, Michael J. Crawford, Marisa A. Leal, Brian Kang, Binhai Zheng
A central hypothesis for the limited capacity for adult central nervous system (CNS) axons to regenerate is the presence of myelin-derived axon growth inhibitors, the role of which, however, remains poorly . . . → Read More: Assessing Spinal Axon Regeneration and Sprouting in Nogo-, MAG-, and OMgp-Deficient Mice
Todor V. Gerdjikov, Caroline G. Bergner, Maik C. Stüttgen, Christian Waiblinger, Cornelius Schwarz. . . . → Read More: Discrimination of Vibrotactile Stimuli in the Rat Whisker System: Behavior and Neurometrics
Ilan Dinstein, Cibu Thomas, Kate Humphreys, Nancy Minshew, Marlene Behrmann, David J. Heeger
It has been proposed that individuals with autism have difficulties understanding the goals and intentions of others because of a fundamental dysfunction in the mirror neuron system. Here, however, we show that individuals with autism exhibited not only normal fMRI . . . → Read More: Normal Movement Selectivity in Autism
Jung Hoon Sul, Hoseok Kim, Namjung Huh, Daeyeol Lee, Min Whan Jung
We investigated how different subregions of rodent prefrontal cortex contribute to value-based decision making, by comparing neural signals related to animal’s choice, its outcome, and action value in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of rats performing a dynamic two-armed . . . → Read More: Distinct Roles of Rodent Orbitofrontal and Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Decision Making
Daniel Durstewitz, Nicole M. Vittoz, Stan B. Floresco, Jeremy K. Seamans
One of the most intriguing aspects of adaptive behavior involves the inference of regularities and rules in ever-changing environments. Rules are often deduced through evidence-based learning which relies on the prefrontal cortex (PFC). This is a highly dynamic process, evolving trial by . . . → Read More: Abrupt Transitions between Prefrontal Neural Ensemble States Accompany Behavioral Transitions during Rule Learning
Michiel W.H. Remme, Máté Lengyel, Boris S. Gutkin
Dendritic democracy and independence have been characterized for near-instantaneous processing of synaptic inputs. However, a wide class of neuronal computations requires input integration on long timescales. As a paradigmatic example, entorhinal grid fields have been thought to be generated by the democratic summation of independent . . . → Read More: Democracy-Independence Trade-Off in Oscillating Dendrites and Its Implications for Grid Cells
Gurprit S. Lall, Victoria L. Revell, Hiroshi Momiji, Jazi Al Enezi, Cara M. Altimus, Ali D. Güler, Carlos Aguilar, Morven A. Cameron, Susan Allender, Mark W. Hankins, Robert J. Lucas
Photoreceptive, melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) encode ambient light (irradiance) for the circadian clock, the pupillomotor system, and other influential behavioral/physiological responses. . . . → Read More: Distinct Contributions of Rod, Cone, and Melanopsin Photoreceptors to Encoding Irradiance
Chen Zhang, Deniz Atasoy, Demet Araç, Xiaofei Yang, Marc V. Fucillo, Alfred J. Robison, Jaewon Ko, Axel T. Brunger, Thomas C. Südhof
Neurexins are presynaptic cell-adhesion molecules that form trans-synaptic complexes with postsynaptic neuroligins. When overexpressed in nonneuronal cells, neurexins induce formation of postsynaptic specializations in cocultured neurons, suggesting that neurexins are . . . → Read More: Neurexins Physically and Functionally Interact with GABAA Receptors
Joshua J. Buchman, Huan-Chung Tseng, Ying Zhou, Christopher L. Frank, Zhigang Xie, Li-Huei Tsai
Primary autosomal-recessive microcephaly (MCPH) and Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPDII) are both genetic diseases that result in decreased brain size at birth. MCPH is thought to arise from alterations in the size of the neural progenitor pool, but . . . → Read More: Cdk5rap2 Interacts with Pericentrin to Maintain the Neural Progenitor Pool in the Developing Neocortex
Chih-Hang Anthony Tang, Erica Hinteregger, Yuhua Shang, Michael Rosbash
Circadian systems are entrained and phase shifted by light. In Drosophila, the model of light-mediated phase shifting begins with photon capture by CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) followed by rapid TIMELESS (TIM) degradation. In this study, we focused on phase delays and assayed TIM degradation within individual . . . → Read More: Light-Mediated TIM Degradation within Drosophila Pacemaker Neurons (s-LNvs) Is Neither Necessary nor Sufficient for Delay Zone Phase Shifts
Takuro Tojima, Rurika Itofusa, Hiroyuki Kamiguchi
Asymmetric Ca2+ elevations across the axonal growth cone mediate its turning responses to attractive and repulsive guidance cues. Here we show that clathrin-mediated endocytosis acts downstream of Ca2+ signals as driving machinery for growth cone turning. In dorsal root ganglion neurons, the formation of clathrin-coated pits is facilitated . . . → Read More: Asymmetric Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis Drives Repulsive Growth Cone Guidance
Biyu J. He, John M. Zempel, Abraham Z. Snyder, Marcus E. Raichle
Scale-free dynamics, with a power spectrum following P ? f??, are an intrinsic feature of many complex processes in nature. In neural systems, scale-free activity is often neglected in electrophysiological research. Here, we investigate scale-free dynamics in human brain and . . . → Read More: The Temporal Structures and Functional Significance of Scale-free Brain Activity